In the realm of effective communication, understanding and implementing the ‘7 Cs’ can be a game changer. These seven principles serve as a reliable guideline to improve our communication skills, whether in our personal lives, professional environments, or even in our digital interactions.

These fundamental principles, known as the ‘7 Cs of Communication’, are: Clear, Concise, Concrete, Correct, Coherent, Complete, and Courteous. Each ‘C’ encapsulates a crucial aspect of communication, and together they provide a comprehensive framework for delivering effective messages.

It’s important to bear in mind, however, that the interpretation of the 7 Cs can vary slightly across different sources. As the concept has evolved over time and adapted to diverse communication contexts, variations have naturally emerged. Thus, to gain a well-rounded understanding, it’s beneficial to consult multiple resources.

In this post, we’ll delve into each of the 7 Cs of effective communication, providing a detailed understanding of their significance, along with practical tips for their application. Our aim is to empower you to communicate with confidence, clarity, and courtesy, across all your interactions.

The 7Cs of Effective Communication at a glance:

1. Clear2. Concise3. Concrete4. Correct5. Coherent6. Complete7. Courteous

1. Clear

The cornerstone of effective communication is clarity. The message you convey should be clear, easily understandable, and devoid of any ambiguity. Clarity ensures that the receiver comprehends the message exactly as the sender intended.

In order to achieve clarity, one should:

Use Simple Language: Avoid using jargon, complex words, or convoluted phrases. Instead, use simple, direct language that your audience will easily understand. This is particularly crucial when dealing with diverse audiences or individuals for whom English might not be their first language.

Be Specific: Ambiguity often leads to misinterpretation. Instead of making general statements, be precise and specific. This includes focusing on one idea at a time and breaking complex ideas or tasks into simpler, more digestible parts.

Avoid Overloading Information: Too much information can confuse the recipient and dilute the core message. Present only as much information as necessary to convey your point effectively.

Use Visual Aids: Sometimes, complex ideas are better conveyed visually. Using diagrams, infographics, or other visual aids can help clarify your message and ensure it’s understood correctly.

Remember, the objective of clear communication is not just to convey a message, but to ensure that the message is understood and can be acted upon effectively. When a message is clear, it enhances the effectiveness of the communication process, reduces misunderstandings, and improves overall productivity.

2. Concise

The principle of conciseness in communication emphasizes delivering your message in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C’s, especially clarity. It’s about being straightforward, succinct, and eliminating any superfluous information.

Implementing conciseness in communication can be achieved through the following practices:

Eliminate Unnecessary Words: Trim down your sentences to include only necessary words. Avoid filler words and redundant phrases that don’t contribute to the meaning or value of your message.

Avoid Repetition: Repeating the same information can be tiresome for the listener and can detract from the key points of your message. Ensure each sentence brings something new to the listener or reader.

Stick to the Point: Ensure that all elements of your message align with the core point you’re trying to convey. Don’t meander with unrelated details or go off on tangents.

Use Precise Language: Instead of long-winded explanations, use precise words and phrases that accurately convey your message in fewer words.

Being concise in your communication does not mean rushing or omitting essential details. It’s about delivering your message effectively and efficiently, thereby respecting the recipient’s time and attention span. Concise communication reduces confusion, increases engagement, and leads to better understanding and quicker decision making.

3. Concrete

The principle of concreteness in communication means ensuring your message is solid, factual, and vivid rather than vague and abstract. Concrete information leaves less room for misunderstanding or interpretation because it offers clear, defined, and specific details.

Adopting concreteness in communication involves:

Providing Clear Points: Your message should have a definitive point or purpose that isn’t open to multiple interpretations. This is often achieved by being explicit and direct in your assertions.

Using Specific Details and Facts: Be accurate with details and use facts to support your statements. The inclusion of numbers, stats, or dates can often enhance the concreteness of your message.

Providing Examples: Real-life examples or scenarios can illustrate your points more vividly and make your message more relatable and understandable. Examples help to bring your message to life and can make abstract concepts more tangible.

Giving Evidence: Supporting your message with evidence or research findings can add credibility and make it more concrete. Evidence substantiates your claims and makes your message more convincing.

A concrete message helps the recipient to understand precisely what you mean, making the communication more effective. It can also boost your credibility, as your message is supported by facts or evidence, and not just based on assumptions or abstract notions.

4. Correct

In the context of communication, correctness refers to the accuracy and reliability of your message, including language, facts, and information. It’s about making sure that your message is free of errors and misinformation, which could potentially mislead the recipient or harm your credibility.

Adhering to correctness in communication involves:

Fact-checking: Before sharing any information, verify the accuracy of your facts, figures, and statistics. Misinformation can damage your credibility and can lead to unwanted consequences.

Proper Grammar and Spelling: Errors in grammar and spelling can detract from your message and make it difficult for the recipient to understand what you’re trying to say. They can also create a negative impression about your attention to detail and professionalism. Always proofread your message before delivering it.

Appropriate Language: Use language that is appropriate for your audience and the context. This includes avoiding slang or jargon unless you are certain your audience understands it. Also, ensure that your tone is suitable for the situation.

Correct Format and Structure: Follow the accepted norms and conventions for the type of communication you are engaging in. For example, a business email should follow a different format than a casual text message.

Maintaining correctness in communication not only enhances comprehension but also builds trust. It signals to your recipients that you are reliable, meticulous, and professional, which can strengthen your relationships and improve the effectiveness of your communication.

5. Coherent

Coherence in communication refers to the logical and consistent connection of ideas in a message, ensuring that all points are relevant and contribute to the main topic or purpose. A coherent message is one where everything ties together smoothly, creating a logical progression that is easy for the recipient to follow.

To ensure coherence in your communication:

Maintain Logical Flow: Organize your points in a way that one idea naturally leads to the next. Use transitional phrases to guide your audience from one point to the other and to show how different ideas relate to each other.

Stick to the Topic: Each point or piece of information you share should relate directly back to your main topic or purpose. Avoid introducing unrelated ideas or going off on tangents.

Use Consistent Terminology: Using different terms to refer to the same concept can confuse your audience. Choose a specific term for a particular concept and stick to it throughout your message.

Align Your Message with Your Objectives: The message should align with your main objective or purpose. For example, if you’re communicating about a new company policy, ensure that all the information shared contributes to understanding that policy.

Coherence is key in delivering a message that is easy to understand and follow. It ensures that your audience stays engaged and that your main points are clearly understood. A coherent message leaves little room for misinterpretation or confusion, enhancing the effectiveness of your communication.

6. Complete

Completeness in communication signifies that all necessary and relevant information is included in the message, leaving no room for ambiguity or guesswork for the receiver. A complete message is one where the receiver has enough information to understand the message fully and to take appropriate action.

To ensure your communication is complete:

Provide All Necessary Details: When conveying a message, make sure you’re including all the required details. This might include dates, times, locations, specific tasks, or any conditions that apply.

Answer the Five Ws: A good way to check for completeness is to see if your message answers the five Ws: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. If your message answers all these questions, it’s likely complete.

Include Supporting Information: In some cases, providing additional context or background information can make your message more complete. This might include links to resources, references to past events, or explanations of how decisions were made.

Anticipate Questions: Try to anticipate any questions or concerns the recipient might have, and address these in your message. This can reduce back-and-forth communication and make it easier for the recipient to understand your message and take action.

A complete message is more likely to lead to effective and efficient communication. It helps to avoid misunderstandings and errors, and it reduces the need for follow-up communication. A complete message shows that you respect the receiver’s time and you’re thorough in your communication.

7. Courteous

Courtesy in communication refers to the expression of politeness, consideration, and respect towards the receiver. A courteous message acknowledges the recipient’s feelings and viewpoint, and seeks to foster a positive and respectful interaction.

Here’s how you can ensure courteous communication:

Use Polite Language: Use phrases like “please”, “thank you”, and “I appreciate” to show respect and gratitude. Avoid offensive or rude language. Even when delivering difficult messages, try to use tactful and respectful language.

Be Considerate: Acknowledge the recipient’s perspective, feelings, and circumstances. Show understanding and empathy in your communication. This is particularly important in conflict situations or when delivering negative feedback.

Respect Differences: Be aware of and respect the cultural, linguistic, and individual differences of your recipients. Be inclusive in your language and avoid making assumptions based on stereotypes or biases.

Use Appropriate Tone: The tone of your message should match the context and the recipient. For example, a formal tone might be appropriate for a business email, while a more casual tone might be suitable for a friendly text message.

Avoid Negative or Inflammatory Language: Words can have a significant impact on the receiver’s emotions. To maintain courtesy, avoid language that is likely to provoke negative emotions or cause offence.

Courteous communication helps to build a positive relationship with your recipient, fostering mutual respect and cooperation. It makes the recipient more receptive to your message and encourages a more open and productive dialogue.


The concept of the 7 Cs of Communication was first introduced by Scott M. Cutlip and Allen H. Center in their book “Effective Public Relations” in 1952. Since then, it has been expanded upon and popularized by numerous communication and business books, as well as online resources. Here are a few sources to help you learn more about this concept:

Cutlip, S. M., & Center, A. H. (1952). “Effective Public Relations“. Prentice-Hall.

Bovee, C. L., & Thill, J. V. (2008). “Business Communication Today“. Pearson Prentice Hall.

MindTools Content Team. (2020). The 7 Cs of Communication: A Checklist for Clear Communication. Mind Tools.

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