1- Direct Instruction
This is what some refer to as the traditional method. Direct instruction is primarily teacher centred and consists of direct lecturing or vertical teaching. It is a form of explicit teaching that consists of repetitive practice, didactic questioning, drill and demonstration. This strategy is particularly useful for ‘providing information, or developing step-by-step skills.’
As its name indicates, this strategy consists of creating learning environments conducive to interactions and discussions. It posits that learning takes place through interactive communication of knowledge and this interaction can happen in different forms including: open or closed group discussions, collaborative project work, whole class discussions …etc
3- Experiential learning
One of the seminal works in experiential learning is Dewey’s “Experience and Education“. This strategy highlights the primacy of the process of learning over the product of learning. The purpose is to enhance students’ motivation and increase their retention rates by connecting classroom learning to their lifeworlds. This can happen through engaging students in reflexive thinking about their own experiences and how to leverage what they learned in the past in new contexts.
Gayla defines this strategy as “the range of instructional methods which are purposefully provided to foster the development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement. Independent study can also include learning in partnership with another individual or as part of a small group.”
Read Gayla’s post for more information on each of these strategies.
1- How to Differentiate Instruction in Academically Diverse Classrooms , by Carol Ann Tomlinson (Author)
2- Effective Instructional Strategies: From Theory to Practice, by Kenneth D. Moore (Author)
“The Third Edition of Effective Instructional Strategies: From Theory to Practice provides thorough coverage of the strategies and skills essential that every teacher needs to know. This text applies the latest research findings and practical classroom practices to the instructional process by presenting a Theory to Practice approach to instruction emphasizing the intelligent use of teaching theory and research to improve classroom instruction. Logically and precisely providing information about how to be an effective classroom teacher, this text has been carefully designed to maximize instructional flexibility and to model established principles of instruction. It was further designed to expand the pedagogical teaching knowledge of teachers and their instructional repertoires.”
3- The New Art and Science of Teaching (More Than Fifty New Instructional Strategies for Academic Success) (The New Art and Science of Teaching Book Series), by Robert J. Marzano (Author)
“This title is a greatly expanded volume of the original Art and Science of Teaching, offering a competency-based education framework for substantive change based on Dr. Robert Marzano’s 50 years of education research. While the previous model focused on teacher outcomes, the new version places focus on student learning outcomes, with research-based instructional strategies teachers can use to help students grasp the information and skills transferred through their instruction. Throughout the book, Marzano details the elements of three overarching categories of teaching, which define what must happen to optimize student learning: students must receive feedback, get meaningful content instruction, and have their basic psychological needs met.”
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